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Annexation of West Papua - a short history

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August 17, 1945: Declaration of Independence Indonesia
By Soekarno and Hatta (2 days after the capitulation of Japan).

Late 1945 till early 1948: Bersiap-period
In the absence of authority, after the Japanese surrender, thousands of European-indian, Chinese and Dutch civilians were killed by hundreds of revolutonary groups.
The Netherlands start with "politionele acties" (military intervention), mid-1947 and end-1948.

November 15, 1946: Convention of Linggadjati
Political agreement: foundation of the Netherlands Indonesian Union between The Netherlands and the United States of Indonesia (individual state = "negara") .
Immediately after the transfer of sovereignty from IndiŽ to Indonesia in 1949, the "negara's" are dissolved, and all people are subjected to the power of the central government in Jakarta.

August 22, 1949 - November 2, 1949: Round Table Conference in The Hague
December 27, 1949: Transfer of sovereignty in Amsterdam and Batavia (Jakarta)

Dutch New Guinea (NNG) remains an overseas part of The Netherlands.
A major part of NNG-policy includes self-determination for Papuans of western New Guinea.

End 1957 - Mid 1962: Expropriation of Dutch property
The Hague refuses to acknowledge Indonesian sovereignty over West Papua. In reaction Dutch property (with a value of approx. 4.5 billion Dutch guilders) is expropriated.
All Dutch are forced te leave Indonesia.
September 1966: Recovery payments for the expropriation of Dutch property
Indonesia agrees to pay 600 million Dutch guilders over a period of 30 years, starting in 1973, with an interest rate of 1 %

December 14, 1960: Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. UN General Assembly Resolution 1514
The UN transforms the Luns-plan from decolonization by The Netherlands to implementation by Indonesia.

December 1, 1961: First hoisting of the flag, the Morning Star
After the earlier establishment of the New Guinea Council on April 5, 1961.

Augustus 15, 1962: New York agreement
Peace agreement, designed by diplomat Ellsworth Bunker, between The Netherlands, Indonesia and The UN - without any involvement of the New Guinea Council.
The UN will rule West Papua for 6 months (UNTEA).
From May 1, 1963 Indonesia will take over and agrees to hold a referendum in 1969.

Mey 1969: Rome agreement between The Netherlands and Indonesia
The Netherlands leave the monitoring of the implementation of the referendum completely to the UN.

July - August 1969:
Indonesia manipulates the Act of Free Choice in West Papua.

November 19, 1969: UN General Assembly Resolution 2504
The UN agrees with the (manipulated) results of the referendum of West Papua.
There is not a single form of protest from The Netherlands.

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